陕西渭南治疗男性不育多少钱首都医生

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月13日 18:48:12
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Beijing (AFP) - A former Chinese journalist has admitted falling for an April Fool joke which sparked a decades-long myth in his country -- that US officer cadets learnt from the example of Communist military hero Lei Feng.北京(法新社)——一名退休的中国记者承认自己愚人节的一个玩笑成就了中国几十年来的一个虚构神话——即美国军校学员向中国的军队英雄雷锋学习。Li Zhurun, a former reporter for China#39;s official Xinhua news agency who is now a university professor, made the confession on his Sina Weibo microblog.李竹润,新华社之前的一名记者,现在则是一名大学教授,在自己的新浪微上承认了这一点。Ever since Communist China#39;s supreme leader Mao Zedong recognised Lei Feng for his humble heroism, said to include washinghis comrades#39; uniforms and giving his pay to the needy, authorities have encouraged citizens to do good and follow his example.自从中共领导人毛泽东赞扬雷锋谦逊的英雄主义以来——据说他为自己的同志洗制,还把自己工资给那些需要的人——当局就一直鼓励人们向他学习。While China#39;s increasingly media-savvy population has come to question the authenticity of the Lei Feng story, the folk hero remains popular in some quarters. Pictures of him wearing his trademark earflap army hat have become a pop icon emblazoned on everything frombags to cups.虽然有越来越多的中国网名开始质疑雷锋故事的真实性,但是这位大众英雄在某些地方还是很受人们待见。他穿护耳军帽的形象被印在了很多事物上,从包包到杯子。In his posting, Li said he had been duped by an unspecified Western news outlet, which reported on April Fool#39;s Day 1981 that the West Point military academy in New York Statehad held up the People#39;s Liberation Army (PLA) soldier as an example for all students.在他的文中,李说他当时被一个未具名的西方媒体机构所误导,该媒体机构在1981年的愚人节那天报道说纽约州的西点军校将这名解放军战士作为学生们的榜样。;I was young at the time, and I didn#39;t know that Western media of ten invent #39;news#39; on April Fool#39;s Day,; Liwrote.“我当时还年轻,我根本不知道西方媒体经常会在愚人节这天‘创造#39;新闻,”他写道。The state-run China Daily newspaper on Tuesday identified the Western outlet as the ed Press International news agency. But it was not clear where Li was based at the time, or who he wrote the story for.《中国日报》周二确认说这家西方媒体正是美国合众国际新闻社。但不清楚李当时派驻在哪里以及他为谁写这篇报道。Over the past three decades, the West Point myth has become so entrenched in Chinathat even a member of the country#39;s advisory discussion body, the Chinese People#39;s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), cited it in a 2009 proposalurging Beijingto apply for UNESCO recognition of the ;Lei Feng Spirit;.过去三十年来,西点军校的这个神话深扎在中国,以至于一名中国政协委员在2009年的时候还敦促北京让联合国教科文组织承认“雷锋精神”。;At America#39;s famous West Point, Lei Feng#39;s portrait is among five hanging in the hall, and the academy#39;s code of student conduct includes his famous e: #39;Human life is limited, but servingthe people is limitless,#39;; CPPCC member Liu Jianglong said, according to the Chongqing Morning Post.《重庆晨报》报道说,当时的政协委员刘江龙说:“在美国著名的西点军校,雷锋的形象是挂在大厅中的五幅之一,而该学院的学生行为准则中就包括了他的名言:‘人的生命是有限的,但是务人民的这份事业是无限的。#39;” /201501/353044

An earthquake nearly 3,000 years ago may be the culprit in the mysterious disappearance of one of China#39;s ancient civilizations, new research suggests.最新研究发现,3000年前的一场地震可能是导致中国一个古文明被毁灭的原因。The massive temblor may have caused catastrophic landslides, damming up the Sanxingdui culture#39;s main water source and diverting it to a new location.这次巨大的震动可能引起了灾难性的滑坡和山崩,挡住了三星堆文明的主要水源,并将水引到了一个新的地点去。That, in turn, may have spurred the ancient Chinese culture to move closer to the new river flow, study co-author Niannian Fan, a river sciences researcher at Tsinghua University in Chengdu,China, said Dec. 18 at the 47th annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.所以中国的这个古老文明不得不随着新的水流方向搬迁到新的地方去,成都清华大学的河流科学研究员兼这份研究的合著者范年年在12月18号于旧金山举行的第47届美国地球物理学会年会上说。Ancient civilization古老文明In 1929, a peasant in Sichuan province uncovered jade and stone artifacts while repairing a sewage ditch located about 24 miles (40 kilometers) from Chengdu. But their significance wasn#39;t understood until 1986, when archaeologists unearthed two pits of Bronze Age treasures, such as jades, about 100 elephant tusks and stunning8-feet-high (2.4 meters) bronze sculptures that suggest an impressive technicalability that was present nowhere else in the world at the time, said PeterKeller, a geologist and president of the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana,California, which is currently hosting an exhibit of some of these treasures.1929年,四川一个农民在距离成都40公里处发现了一些玉石工艺品。但是直到1986年人们才发现了这些东西的重要性,当时考古学家们出土了两处青铜时期的宝藏,比如玉器,大约100个象牙,以及2.4米高的青铜雕塑,这表明中国当时所拥有的高超工艺技术是世界上其他地方所没有的,加州圣安娜鲍尔斯物馆的地质学家兼主席Peter Keller如是说,该馆目前正在展览这其中的一些宝藏。The treasures, which had been broken and buried as if they were sacrificed, came from a lost civilization, now known as the Sanxingdui, a walledcity on the banks of the Minjiang River.这些宝藏——在埋葬之前先被弄破,好像作为一种牺牲品似的——来自一个迷失的文明,即现在所谓的三星堆文明,这是岷江岸边上的一座城市。;It#39;s a big mystery,; said Keller,who was not involved in the current study.“这是一个巨大的未解之谜,”PeterKeller说,他并没有参与目前的这项研究。Archaeologists now believe that the culture willfully dismantled itself sometime between 3,000 and 2,800 years ago, Fansaid.考古学家现在认为这个文化在大约3000年到2800年间自行消失,范年年说。;The current explanations for why it disappeared are war and flood, but both are not very convincing,; Fan toldLive Science.“目前对该文明失落的解释是战争和洪灾,但是这两个理由都不是很让人信,”范年年对Live Science说。But about 14 years ago, archaeologists found the remains of another ancient city called Jinsha near Chengdu. TheJinsha site, though it contained none of the impressive bronzes of Sanxingdui,did have a gold crown with a similar engraved motif of fish, arrows and birdsas a golden staff found at Sanxingdui, Keller said. That has led some scholars to believe that the people from Sanxingdui may have relocated to Jinsha.但是在14年前,考古学家在成都附近找到了另一座古老城市金沙的遗址。这个金沙遗址虽然不包含有三星堆遗址中出土的青铜器,但是在里面发现了一个金,上面雕刻有鱼,弓箭和鸟,这与三星堆中发现的金物体相似,Keller说。所以有些学者就认为三星堆的人民后来可能迁移到了金沙。But why has remained a mystery.但为何依然是个迷。Geological and historical clues地质和历史方面的线索。Fan and his colleagues wondered whether an earthquake may have caused landslides that dammed the river high up in the mountains and rerouted it to Jinsha. That catastrophe may have reduced Sanxingdui#39;s watersupply, spurring its inhabitants to move.范和他的同事怀疑是否曾今发生过一次地震,导致滑坡,从而将高山上的河流堵塞,迫使河流改道到金沙。那将导致三星堆的水供给减少,所以促使其居民搬迁。The valley where Sanxingdui sits has alarge flood plain, with 4.3 miles (7 kilometers) of high terraced walls that were unlikely to have been cut by the small river that now flows through it,Fan said.三星堆所坐落的山谷上有一个巨型的泛滥平原,其高高的阶梯状墙体长达7公里,不太可能被现在流经这里的小河流所阻断,范说。And some historical records support their hypothesis. In 1099 B.C., ancient writers recorded an earthquake in the capitalof the Zhoudynasty, in Shaanxi province, Fan said. Though that spot is roughly 250miles (400 kilometers) from the historic site of Sanxingdui, the latter culture didn#39;t have writing at the time, so it#39;s possible the earthquake epicenter was actually close to Sanxingdui — but it just wasn#39;t recorded there, Fan said.Geological evidence also suggests that an earthquake occurred in the generalregion between 3,330 and 2,200 years ago, he added.而一些历史记录也持了他们的假设。在公元前1099年,古代作家记录了在陕西省的周朝首都所发生的一次地震,范说。虽然这个地点距离三星堆遗址有400公里远,但是由于三星堆当时还没有书写文化,所以极有可能这次的地震就发生在三星堆附近,但是没有书面记录,范说。地质学上的据也表明大约在3330年到2200年之间这个大区域发生过一次地震,他说。Around the same time, geological sediment ssuggest massive flooding occurred, and the later-Han dynasty document ;The Chronicles of the Kings of Shu; records ancient floods pouring from amountain in a spot that suggests the flow being rerouted, Fan said. (Around 800 years later, Jinsha residents built a wall to preventflooding.)大约同时,地质沉积物表明发生了大规模的洪灾,在后汉时期的文献《蜀王编年史》记录了来自一处山头的洪水,表明河流被改道了,范说。(大约800年后,金沙居民建了一座墙用来防洪)。A river rerouted?一条河流被改道了?Together, the findings hint that a major earthquake triggered a landslide that dammed the river, rerouting its flow and reducing water flow to Sanxingdui, Fan said. 总之,这些发现向人们暗示了一个大地震引发了滑坡并堵塞了河流,河流从而改道,三星堆所获得水资源从而减少,范说。But if so, where did the river getrerouted? The team found clues high up in the mountains in the deep and wideYanmen Ravine, at about 12,460 feet (3,800 meters) above sea level.如果真是这样,那河流被改道到哪里去了呢?科研团队在又深又宽的雁门峡谷的高山上发现了线索,在海平面3800米上。The modern-day river cuts through theravine, which was carved by glaciers about 12,000 years ago. Yet the telltalesigns of that glacial erosion — bowl-shaped basins known as cirques — are mysteriously absent for a long stretch of the ravine. The team hypothesizes that an earthquake spurred an avalanche that then wiped out some of the cirquesabout 3,000 years ago.如今的河流穿过了这条峡谷,而这座峡谷是在12000年前由冰川雕琢而成。然而冰川侵蚀的迹象——碗状的盆地,即盆地谷——在峡谷的很长一段距离里都神秘消失了。该研究团队推断3000年前的一次地震引起了大崩塌,所以导致盆地谷的一部分消失。At this point, the theory is still very speculative, and additional geological data is needed to buttress it, Fan said.尽管如此,这样的理论依然是推测性的,需要额外的地质数据来持这样的推测,范说。And while the geological story is possible,Keller said, it doesn#39;t answer the basic question: ;What would motivate people to destroy their entire culture and bury it in two pits? And why didn#39;t the culture reemerge at Jinsha?;虽然从地质学的角度讲得通,但是基本的问题依然没有得到解答:“是什么促使人们摧毁自己的文化并将其埋葬在两个大坑里?为什么这样的文化没有在金沙重新出现? /201412/351122

  One day in the fall of 1981, eight men in their 70s stepped out of a van in front of a converted monastery in New Hampshire. They shuffled forward, a few of them arthritically stooped, a couple with canes. Then they passed through the door and entered a time warp. Perry Como crooned on a vintage radio. Ed Sullivan welcomed guests on a black-and-white TV. Everything inside — including the books on the shelves and the magazines lying around — were designed to conjure 1959. This was to be the men’s home for five days as they participated in a radical experiment, cooked up by a young psychologist named Ellen Langer.1981年秋季的一天,新罕布什尔州一座经改建的修道院前,八名70多岁的老年男子走下了面包车。他们步履蹒跚,其中一些人像关节炎患者一样弯腰驼背,还有两位拄着拐杖。他们进门后,就像进入了一条时间隧道。老式收音机里传来佩里·科莫(Perry Como,人称“C先生”,美国歌手、电视明星)的低声吟唱。黑白电视机上,埃德·沙利文(Ed Sullivan,美国作家和电视节目主持人)正向嘉宾们表示欢迎。这里的一切——包括书架上的书和四下里散落的杂志——都是为营造出1959年的氛围而设计和布置的。在五天的时间里,这里将成为这些老人暂时的家园。他们所参与的,是年轻的心理学家埃伦·兰格(Ellen Langer)精心策划的一项“激进实验”。The subjects were in good health, but aging had left its mark. “This was before 75 was the new 55,” says Langer, who is 67 and the longest-serving professor of psychology at Harvard. Before arriving, the men were assessed on such measures as dexterity, grip strength, flexibility, hearing and vision, memory and cognition — probably the closest things the gerontologists of the time could come to the testable biomarkers of age. Langer predicted the numbers would be quite different after five days, when the subjects emerged from what was to be a fairly intense psychological intervention.虽然受试者们的健康状况都相当不错,但衰老已经在他们身上留下了痕迹。“那时还没有‘75岁是新的55岁’这样的概念,”兰格说,如今67岁的她是哈佛大学任职时间最长的心理学教授。这些老人在抵达实验地点之前接受了一系列检查,如灵巧性、握力、柔韧性、听觉和视觉、和认知功能——当年,这些很可能是老年学家掌握的最接近年龄测试生物标志物的指标。兰格预测,五天之后,当受试者们结束大强度心理干预的时候,这些指标都将大为改观。Langer had aly undertaken a couple of studies involving elderly patients. In one, she found that nursing-home residents who had exhibited early stages of memory loss were able to do better on memory tests when they were given incentives to remember — showing that in many cases, indifference was being mistaken for brain deterioration. In another, now considered a classic of social psychology, Langer gave houseplants to two groups of nursing-home residents. She told one group that they were responsible for keeping the plant alive and that they could also make choices about their schedules during the day. She told the other group that the staff would care for the plants, and they were not given any choice in their schedules. Eighteen months later, twice as many subjects in the plant-caring, decision-making group were still alive than in the control group.在此之前,兰格已经进行了两项涉及老年患者的研究。其中一项发现,在奖励的激励下,处于减退早期阶段的养老院老人能够在测试中获得更好的成绩。这说明,在许多情况下,对外界漠然被错误地当作大脑退化。在另一项如今被公认为社会心理学经典的研究中,兰格将室内植物分发给两组养老院老人。她告诉其中一组老人他们要负责养活这些植物,并允许他们对自己的作息安排做出选择。而另一组老人则被告知,植物有工作人员照顾,且他们没有得到作息安排上的任何选择。18个月后,关怀植物、并能对自己的作息时间表做出决策的那一组仍然健在的老人是对照组的两倍。To Langer, this was evidence that the biomedical model of the day — that the mind and the body are on separate tracks — was wrongheaded. The belief was that “the only way to get sick is through the introduction of a pathogen, and the only way to get well is to get rid of it,” she said, when we met at her office in Cambridge in December. She came to think that what people needed to heal themselves was a psychological “prime” — something that triggered the body to take curative measures all by itself. Gathering the older men together in New Hampshire, for what she would later refer to as a counterclockwise study, would be a way to test this premise.在兰格看来,这些据显示了当时的生物医学模式——即心灵和身体分道而驰——陷入了认识误区。12月,当我在她位于马萨诸塞州剑桥的办公室里见到她时,她说,当时医学界相信“病原体侵入是导致人体患病的唯一途径,而要恢复健康,也惟有摆脱病原体”。她逐渐产生的一个设想是,人需要某种心理上的“触发刺激”来自行痊愈,也就是触发身体自行动用所有的康复手段。让上文提到的老年男性汇聚新罕布什尔州,进行她后来所称的“逆时针”研究,就是测试这个假设的一种方式。The men in the experimental group were told not merely to reminisce about this earlier era, but to inhabit it — to “make a psychological attempt to be the person they were 22 years ago,” she told me. “We have good reason to believe that if you are successful at this,” Langer told the men, “you will feel as you did in 1959.” From the time they walked through the doors, they were treated as if they were younger. The men were told that they would have to take their belongings upstairs themselves, even if they had to do it one shirt at a time.她要求实验组的老人不要止步于对旧时光的缅怀,而是要让自己穿越回去,栖息于其中——“从心理层面尝试做回22年前的自己,”兰格向我描述道。她还对他们说:“我们有很好的理由相信,如果你们能成功地做到这一点,你们会觉得自己还是1959年的那个人。”从他们进门的那一刻起,他们就被当做年轻人对待。他们被告知,他们必须自己把行李搬上楼去,哪怕他们一次只拿得动一件衬衫。Each day, as they discussed sports (Johnny as and Wilt Chamberlain) or “current” events (the first U.S. satellite launch) or dissected the movie they just watched (“Anatomy of a Murder,” with Jimmy Stewart), they spoke about these late-#39;50s artifacts and events in the present tense — one of Langer’s chief priming strategies. Nothing — no mirrors, no modern-day clothing, no photos except portraits of their much younger selves — spoiled the illusion that they had shaken off 22 years.每天,他们讨论着体育(约翰尼·尤尼塔斯[Johnny as,曾获国家橄榄球联盟最有价值球员]或威尔特·张伯伦[Wilt Chamberlain,前美国NBA联盟职业篮球运动员])和“时事”(美国发射第一枚卫星),或是评析刚刚看过的电影(詹姆斯·斯图尔特[Jimmy Stewart]主演的《桃色血案》[“Anatomy of a Murder”])——他们使用现在时态谈论这些50年代末的物品和事件,这也是兰格主要的“触发刺激”策略之一。不会有任何东西,包括镜子和现代装,来扰乱这种“时光倒流22年”的幻觉,即使有照片,那也是他们自己年轻时的肖像。At the end of their stay, the men were tested again. On several measures, they outperformed a control group that came earlier to the monastery but didn’t imagine themselves back into the skin of their younger selves, though they were encouraged to reminisce. They were suppler, showed greater manual dexterity and sat taller — just as Langer had guessed. Perhaps most improbable, their sight improved. Independent judges said they looked younger. The experimental subjects, Langer told me, had “put their mind in an earlier time,” and their bodies went along for the ride.在这段小住结束时,这些老人再度接受了检查。实验组在多项指标上远远优于对照组。后者之前就来到了这所修道院,但研究人员只鼓励他们回忆过去,而没有要求他们想象自己重返年轻时代。实验组老人的身体柔韧性更强,手部更加灵巧,坐姿时腰背也挺得更直——正如兰格所猜测的那样。也许最不可思议的是,他们的视力也有所改善。独立的评委表示他们看上去更年轻了。兰格告诉我,实验组受试者“让自己的心境回到了年轻时代”,他们的身体也随之调整。The results were almost too good. They beggared belief. “It sounded like Lourdes,” Langer said. Though she and her students would write up the experiment for a chapter in a book for Oxford University Press called “Higher Stages of Human Development,” they left out a lot of the tantalizing color — like the spontaneous touch-football game that erupted between heretofore creaky seniors as they waited for the bus back to Cambridge. And Langer never sent it out to the journals. She suspected it would be rejected.实验结果太棒了,简直让人难以置信。“听起来就像卢尔德(法国南部小镇,著名朝圣地,相传人们可以在那里治愈一切疾病——译注)一样,”兰格说。虽然她和她的学生们在牛津大学出版社(Oxford University Press)出版的《人类发展的较高阶段》(Higher Stages of Human Development)中用一个章节的篇幅介绍这项实验,但他们省略了很多动人的情节,例如,在等巴士返回剑桥时,这些之前很僵硬,仿佛一动就会咯吱作响的老骨头自发组织了一场触身式橄榄球赛。出于对退稿的担心,兰格没敢将这些内容写在投稿给刊物的文章中。After all, it was a small-sample study, conducted over a mere five days, with plenty of potentially confounding variables in the design. (Perhaps the stimulating novelty of the whole setup or wanting to try extra hard to please the testers explained some of the great improvement.) But more fundamental, the unconventionality of the study made Langer self-conscious about showing it around. “It was just too different from anything that was being done in the field as I understood it,” she said. “You have to appreciate, people weren’t talking about mind-body medicine,” she said.毕竟,这只是为期五天的一个小样本研究,设计中存在大量潜在混淆的变量。(或许是整个实验令人振奋的新颖性,或者是受试者为了取悦测试者而格外努力,这些都可能在一定程度上解释某些指标的显著改观。)但更为根本的是,这项研究的标新立异使兰格不太好意思到处展示。“在我看来,这跟该领域当时在进行的研究工作相去太远,”她说。“要知道,那时没有人谈论身心医学(mind-body medicine)。”Langer did not try to replicate the study — mostly because it was so complicated and expensive; every time she thought about trying it again, she talked herself out of it. Then in 2010, the B broadcast a recreation, which Langer consulted on, called “The Young Ones,” with six aging former celebrities as guinea pigs.兰格没有尝试重复这项实验,主要是因为它太复杂,成本也太高,每次她产生再试一次的念头,她都劝阻了自己。直到2010年,英国广播公司(B)聘请兰格担任顾问,重复了这项实验,并将其做成一档节目,名为“年轻一代”(The Young Ones),把六位年迈的前名星当作实验对象。The stars were squired via period cars to a country house meticulously retrofitted to 1975, right down to the kitschy wall art. They emerged after a week as apparently rejuvenated as Langer’s septuagenarians in New Hampshire, showing marked improvement on the test measures. One, who had rolled up in a wheelchair, walked out with a cane. Another, who couldn’t even put his socks on unassisted at the start, hosted the final evening’s dinner party, gliding around with purpose and vim. The others walked taller and indeed seemed to look younger. They had been pulled out of mothballs and made to feel important again, and perhaps, Langer later mused, that rekindling of their egos was central to the reclamation of their bodies.这些明星们被老式轿车送到了一幢精心改建成1975年风格(甚至包括那个时期俗气的墙面艺术)的乡间别墅。一周后,他们重新露面,一个个都显得青春焕发,就像当年兰格实验中那些年逾七旬的老人一样。他们的检测指标也出现明显改善。有个人进去时还坐着轮椅,出来时却可以自己拄着拐杖行走了。还有一位,一开始就连穿袜子也要别人帮忙,到实验结束前夕却操办了告别晚宴,意志坚定精神抖擞地忙进忙出。其他人步行时腰杆也挺得更直,确实看起来年轻多了。他们不再被束之高阁,而是再次觉得自己重要,有价值。后来兰格想到,唤醒自我意识也许在他们身体重现活力的神奇变化中起到了核心作用。The program, which was shown in four parts and nominated for a Bafta Award (a British Emmy), brought new attention to Langer’s work. Jeffrey Rediger, a psychiatrist and the medical and clinical director of Harvard’s McLean Hospital, was invited by a friend of Langer’s to watch it with some colleagues last year. Rediger was aware of Langer’s original New Hampshire study, but the made-for-TV version brought its tantalizing implications to life.这档分四集播出的节目获得了英国电影学院奖(Bafta Award,相当于英国的艾美奖[Emmy])提名,并引发人们对兰格的研究产生新的关注。去年,兰格的一个朋友邀请哈佛大学医学院教学附属麦克莱恩医院(Harvard’s McLean Hospital)的精神病学家、医务和临床主任杰弗里·雷迪格(Jeffrey Rediger)与同事们一起观看了这档节目。雷迪格早就对兰格当年在新罕布什尔州进行的研究略知一二,但这个为电视制作的版本生动展现了该项研究的诱人影响。“She’s one of the people at Harvard who really gets it,” Rediger told me. “That health and illness are much more rooted in our minds and in our hearts and how we experience ourselves in the world than our models even begin to understand.”“兰格是哈佛大学里真正懂行的几个人之一,”雷迪格告诉我。“也就是说,健康和疾病在更大程度上植根于我们的思想和心情,以及我们在世上如何体验自己,而这是现有医学模式根本不理解的。”Langer’s house in Cambridge was as chilly as a meat locker when we arrived together, having walked from campus, last winter. The back door had been left open all day so that her aging, coddled Westie, Gus, could relieve himself in the yard. (Langer’s partner, Nancy Hemenway, who normally would be at home, was away.) Gus has a brain tumor. “He was supposed to be dead over a year ago,” Langer said. “But I think he might outlive us all.”去年冬天,我和兰格从校园里一起步行到她家去,房子里冷得好像冷藏室一样。后门整天敞开着,好让她宠爱的那条老西高地白梗犬格斯(Gus)可以自由地跑到院子里去玩。(兰格的伴侣,南希·海明威[Nancy Hemenway]通常在家,但那天正好出去了。)格斯患有脑肿瘤。“照说它在一年前就会死,”兰格说。“但我觉得它说不定比我们所有人都活得久。”In the kitchen, Langer began laying out wide noodles for a lasagna she was making for an end-of-term party. It was the last time she would meet with her students for a while; they were about to scatter for the winter break, and she was leaving for a sabbatical in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, where she and Nancy have another home. (Langer planned to Skype into weekly lab meetings.)兰格在厨房里忙活着,拿出宽面条准备做意大利千层面,好在期末聚会上招待大家。这是今后一段时间内她最后一次跟自己的学生碰面了——寒假开始后,大家将各奔东西,而她准备动身前往墨西哥的巴亚尔塔港休长假,她和南希在那里还有一个居所。(兰格计划通过Skype参与每周一次的实验室会议。)“Family recipe?” I asked of the dinner.“这是家传的菜谱吗?”我问起了晚餐。“I don’t follow recipes — you should know that,” she said. She piled on an immoderate amount of cheese. “Besides, if I blow it, what’s going to be the cost?” Langer said. “Is it anyone’s last meal?” She added, “My students aren’t going to love me if my lasagna’s no good?”“我从不拘泥于菜谱的——这你知道,”她一边说,一边往面上大量地堆奶酪。“再说,就算我搞砸了又怎么样?这又不是谁最后的晚餐;就算我做的千层面不好吃,难道我的学生们就会因此不爱戴我?”Langer was born in the Bronx and went to N.Y.U., becoming a chemistry major with her eye on med school. That all changed after she took Psych 101. Her professor was Philip Zimbardo, who would later go to Stanford and investigate the effects of authority and obedience in his well-known prison experiment. Human behavior, as Zimbardo presented it, was more interesting than what she’d been studying, and Langer soon switched tracks.兰格出生于布朗克斯,在纽约大学攻读化学专业,想着以后进医学院。然而,在她听了《心理学101》(Psych 101)课之后,一切都改变了。她师从的菲利普·津巴多(Philip Zimbardo)教授后来去斯坦福大学任教,并在著名的监狱实验中研究了权威和从的影响。兰格从津巴多教授的讲课中发现,人类行为比她之前学的东西更有意思,于是她很快换了专业。She went on to graduate work at Yale, where a poker game led to her doctoral dissertation on the magical thinking of otherwise logical people. Even smart people fall prey to an “illusion of control” over chance events, Langer concluded. We aren’t really very rational creatures. Our cognitive biases routinely steer us wrong. Langer’s notion that people are trained not to think and are thus extremely vulnerable to right-sounding but actually wrong notions prefigured many of the tenets of “behavioral economics” and the work of people like Daniel Kahneman, who won a Nobel Prize in economic sciences. But unlike many researchers who systematically work out one concept until they own it, Langer’s peripatetic mind quickly moved on to other areas of inquiry. “I was never — and maybe this is a character flaw — the type of person who is going to take one idea and beat it to death,” she said. “Part of that is that I have so many ideas. If whatever it is I’m excited about now doesn’t happen, it doesn’t matter, because there’s always the next possibility.”她的研究生阶段在耶鲁大学(Yale)度过,在那里,一场扑克游戏给了她启迪,使她写出一篇有关通常讲究逻辑的人们迸发突发奇想的士论文。兰格的结论是:即使聪明人也容易陷入对于偶然事件的“控制错觉”。我们真的算不上一种高度理性的生物。认知偏见经常将我们导向错误的方向。兰格认为,人们养成了不假思索的习惯,这使他们很容易被似是而非的理念误导。这一观念的形成早于许多流派的“行为经济学”,也早于诺贝尔经济学奖得主丹尼尔·卡尼曼(Daniel Kahneman)等人的研究。但与许多锲而不舍地钻研某个概念、直到它为自己所有的研究者不同,兰格的思维经常信马由缰地转向其他研究领域。“我从来不是能追着一个问题打破砂锅问到底的人,或许这是一种性格缺陷,”她说。“部分原因是我总是有太多的想法。如果现在让我激动不已的东西没能搞出名堂,那没关系,因为始终存在下一个可能性。”By the 1970s, Langer had become convinced that not only are most people led astray by their biases, but they are also spectacularly inattentive to what’s going on around them. “They’re just not there,” as she puts it. When you’re not there, Langer reasoned, you’re very likely to end up where you’re led. She set up a number of studies to show how people’s thinking and behavior can easily be manipulated with subtle primes.到了20世纪70年代,兰格逐渐确信,多数人不仅被自己的偏见带上歧途,还对身边发生的事情极其漫不经心。就像她所说的,“他们就是心不在焉。”兰格的推理是,当你心不在焉的时候,你很容易被牵着走。她设立了多项研究,旨在揭示人们思路和行为很容易被细微的“触发刺激”所操纵。In one, she and her colleagues found that office workers were far more likely to comply with a ridiculous interdepartmental memo if it looked like other official memos. In another, created with her Yale mentor, Robert Abelson, they asked behavioral and traditional therapists to watch a of a person being interviewed, who was labeled either “patient” or “job applicant,” and then evaluate the person. The behavioral therapists regarded the interviewee as well adjusted regardless of whether they were told the person was a patient or an applicant. But the traditional therapists found the interviewee labeled “patient” significantly more disturbed. Even trained observers “were mindlessly led by the label,” Langer says.在一项研究中,她和同事们发现,只要看起来跟其他官方的内部通知差不多,哪怕是一份内容荒谬的跨部门通知,也会让上班族们照办。在另一项与她在耶鲁大学的导师罗伯特·艾贝尔森(Robert Abelson)合作创建的研究中,他们要求行为治疗师和传统治疗师观看某个身份被标注为“患者”或“求职者”的人接受采访的视频,然后对此人做出评估。无论是对所谓的“患者”还是“求职者”,行为治疗师认为这位受访者相当自如得体。但是在传统治疗师眼里,“患者”身份的受访者明显更加不安。兰格指出,这说明,即使训练有素的观察者“也很容易被标签搞得没头没脑”。If people could learn to be mindful and always perceive the choices available to them, Langer says, they would fulfill their potential and improve their health. Langer’s technique of achieving a state of mindfulness is different from the one often utilized in Eastern “mindfulness meditation” — nonjudgmental awareness of the thoughts and feelings drifting through your mind — that is everywhere today. Her emphasis is on noticing moment-to-moment changes around you, from the differences in the face of your spouse across the breakfast table to the variability of your asthma symptoms. When we are “actively making new distinctions, rather than relying on habitual” categorizations, we’re alive; and when we’re alive, we can improve. Indeed, “well-being and enhanced performance” were Langer’s goals from the beginning of her career.兰格表示,如果人们能够学会多留点心,始终察觉到身边可以把握的选择,那么,他们将能充分发挥自己的潜能,并改善自己的健康。兰格所说的达到专注状态的技巧与在当今大行其道的东方式“正念禅修”不同,后者是对你的脑海中飘过的思想和感受达到不加评判的认知。而兰格强调的是留心你身边每时每刻的细微变化,从早餐桌对面配偶脸色的差异,到你的哮喘症状的改变。当我们在“积极主动发现新的差别,而不是依赖于习惯性的”分类时,我们会真正觉得自己活着;而当我们觉得自己活着,我们就能改善。的确,在职业生涯伊始,兰格就以“福祉和增强的表现”为目标。Martin Seligman in the past two decades has come to be recognized as the father of positive psychology. Tal Ben-Shahar, who taught a popular undergraduate course at Harvard on the subject until 2008, calls Langer “the mother of positive psychology,” by virtue of her early work that anticipated the field.过去20年里,马丁·赛里格曼(Martin Seligman)被公认为积极心理学之父。而凭借其在该领域的早期研究工作,兰格被2008年之前在哈佛大学讲授一门深受欢迎的本科课程的塔尔·班夏哈(Tal Ben-Shahar)誉为“积极心理学之母”。Langer came to believe that one way to enhance well-being was to use all sorts of placebos. Placebos aren’t just sugar pills disguised as medicine, though that’s the literal definition; they are any intervention, benign but believed by the recipient to be potent, that produces measurable physiological changes. Placebo effects are a striking phenomenon and still not all that well understood. Entire fields like psychoneuroimmunology and psychoendocrinology have emerged to investigate the relationship between psychological and physiological processes. Neuroscientists are charting what’s going on in the brain when expectations alone reduce pain or relieve Parkinson’s symptoms. More traditionally minded health researchers acknowledge the role of placebo effects and account for them in their experiments. But Langer goes well beyond that. She thinks they’re huge — so huge that in many cases they may actually be the main factor producing the results.兰格认为,增强福祉的途径之一是利用各种各样的安慰剂。安慰剂并不只是伪装成药物的糖丸(尽管那确实是字面上的定义);没有危害、接受者相信有效,能够产生可测量的生理变化的任何干预措施都可称为安慰剂。安慰剂效应是一种引人注目的现象,至今仍未获得很好的理解。目前已经涌现出了心理神经免疫学和精神内分泌学等完整的研究领域,专门探讨心理与生理过程之间的关系。神经科学家试图跟踪记录当仅凭期望就减轻疼痛或缓解帕金森氏病症状时,大脑中究竟发生了哪些变化。意识较为传统的医学研究人员承认安慰剂效应的作用,并在自己的实验中计入这些效应。但兰格走得更远。她认为,安慰剂效应是巨大的——在许多情况下,它们实际上可能是产生结果的主要因素。As an example, she points to a study she conducted in a hair salon in 2009. She got the idea from a study undertaken nearly a decade earlier by three scientists who looked at more than 4,000 subjects over two decades and found that men who were bald when they joined the study were more likely to develop prostate cancer than men who kept their hair. The researchers couldn’t be sure what explained the link, though they suspected that androgens (male hormones including testosterone) could be affecting both scalp and prostate. Langer had another theory: “Baldness is a cue for old age,” she says. “Therefore, men who go bald early in life may perceive themselves as older and may consequently be expected to age more quickly.” And those expectations may actually lead them to experience the effects of aging. To explore this relationship between expectations of aging and physiological signs of health, Langer and her colleagues designed the hair-salon study. They had research assistants approach 47 women, ranging in age from 27 to 83, who were about to have their hair cut, colored or both. They took blood-pressure ings. After the subjects’ hair was done, they filled out a questionnaire about how they felt they looked, and their blood pressure was taken again. In a paper published in 2010 in the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science, they reported that the subjects who perceived themselves as looking younger after the makeover experienced a drop in blood pressure.她援引自己2009年在一家美发沙龙进行的研究作为例。该研究的灵感来源于近10年前三位科学家进行的另一项研究,他们在20年期间追踪调查了4000多名受试者,发现在加入研究时秃顶的男性比头发丰茂的男性更容易患前列腺癌。研究人员不能肯定这种关联从何而来,但他们怀疑这也许是因为雄激素(包括睾酮)对头皮和前列腺都有影响。兰格则提出了另一种理论:“脱发是衰老的暗示之一。因此,早早秃顶的男性可能感觉自己更老,结果预期自己会更快衰老。”而这种预期实际上可能导致他们遭遇衰老效应。为了探讨对衰老的预期与健康的生理体征之间的这种关系,兰格和她的同事们设计了一项在美发沙龙进行的研究。他们让研究助理们去接触来美发沙龙剪发、染发或者先剪后染的47名女性(其年龄从27岁到83岁不等),并记录下她们的血压读数。受试者们做好发型之后,就各自对自己外貌的观感填写了一份调查问卷,并再次测量血压。在这篇2010年发表于《心理科学透视》(Perspectives on Psychological Science)期刊的论文中,他们报告称,那些认为自己在做好发型后显得更加年轻的受试者血压有所下降。A few years earlier, Langer and one of her students, Alia Crum, conducted a study, published in the journal Psychological Science, involving 84 hotel chambermaids. The maids had mostly reported that they didn’t get much exercise in a typical week. The researchers primed the experimental group to think differently about their work by informing them that cleaning rooms was fairly serious exercise — as much if not more than the surgeon general recommends. Once their expectations were shifted, those maids lost weight, relative to a control group (and also improved on other measures like body mass index and hip-to-waist ratio). All other factors were held constant. The only difference was the change in mind-set.几年前,兰格和她的学生阿莉娅·克拉姆(Alia Crum)进行了一项研究,并发表在《心理科学》(Psychological Science)杂志上。该研究涉及84名酒店客房女务员。她们大多报告称,自己在典型的一周工作期间没有什么锻炼机会。研究人员引导实验组的女务员换一种心态看待自己的工作,告诉她们:打扫房间其实是一种强度不小的锻炼,运动量不比卫生局局长所建议的要少。在她们的预期改变后,这些女务员的体重相对于对照组有所减轻(其他指标,如身体质量指数[BMI]和腰臀比也有所改善)。其他所有因素都保持恒定。唯一变化的只有受试者的心态。Critics hunted for other explanations — statistical errors or subtle behavior changes in the weight-loss group that Langer hadn’t accounted for. Otherwise the outcome seemed to defy physics. “To which I would say, ‘There’s no discipline that is complete,’ ” Langer responds. “If current-day physics can’t explain these things, maybe there are changes that need to be made in physics.”批评者寻找其他解释,如统计错误,或者兰格未能计入的体重下降组的细微行为变化。否则,那样的结果似乎有悖于物理学。“对此我想说,‘没有一个学科是绝对完美的’,”兰格回应道。“如果当代的物理学无法解释这些现象,也许是物理学本身需要一些改变了。”In the course of her career, Langer says, she has written or co-written more than 200 studies, and she continues to churn out research at a striking pace. Just before winter break, in her final meeting with two dozen or so students and postdocs, Langer went around the table checking the progress of nearly 30 experiments, all of which manipulated subjects’ perceptions. Some used a special clock that could be set to run at half-speed or double-speed. In one study, sleeping subjects were fooled, upon awakening, into thinking they had more or less sleep than they actually did. She posits that the scores on measures of short-term memory and reaction time will vary accordingly, regardless of how long the subjects actually slept. In a yet-to-be-published diabetes study, Langer wondered whether the biochemistry of Type 2 diabetics could be manipulated by the same psychological intervention — the subjects’ perception of how much time had passed. Her theory was that the diabetics’ blood-glucose levels would follow perceived time rather than actual time; in other words, they would spike and dip when the subjects expected them to. And that’s what her data revealed. When a student emailed her with the results this fall, she could barely contain her excitement. “This is the beginning of a psychological cure for diabetes!” she told me.兰格说,在她的职业生涯中,她已经独立撰写或与他人合作撰写了200多篇研究论文,如今她继续以惊人的速度发表大量研究。就在寒假前,她与二十多个学生和士后最后一次开会时,兰格围着桌子检查着近30项实验的进展,这些实验都涉及操纵受试者的感知。一些实验使用了特制的时钟,这些钟能够以正常时钟的一半速度或者两倍速度运转。在某一项研究中,受试者一觉醒来后受到蒙骗,让他们以为自己睡得比实际时间更久或者更短。兰格设想,这些受试者的短期记忆和反应时间等指标的得分将发生相应变化,而无论他们的实际睡眠时间有多长。在一项尚未发表的糖尿病研究中,兰格想知道2型糖尿病患者的生化检查结果是否也能通过同样的心理干预——即受试者对于已经过去了多长时间的感知——来操纵。她的理论是,糖尿病人血糖水平会跟随受试者感知到的时间(而不是实际时间)波动;换句话说,它会按照受试者的预期上升或者下降。而实验数据揭示的情况正是这样。今年秋天,当学生通过电子邮件向她报告实验结果时,她几乎无法抑制自己内心的激动。她告诉我说:“这是用心理疗法治疗糖尿病的开端!”Some of the new experiments rely on variables that change self-perception. In a study using avatars, scheduled to take place at the popular gaming facility Second Life, subjects will watch a digital version of themselves playing tennis and gradually getting thinner from the exertion. Langer is exploring whether watching an avatar will have a physiological effect on the real person. “You see yourself, you’re playing tennis,” Langer said. “The question is: Will people lose weight? We’ll see.”有些新实验依赖于改变自我感知的变量。在一项拟在流行的虚拟游戏世界“第二人生”(Second Life)中进行的研究中,受试者将观看自己的数字化身打网球,并因为体力消耗而逐渐变得苗条起来。兰格希望研究观察化身会否对真人造成生理影响。“你看到自己在打网球,”兰格说。“问题是:人们会因此减肥么?我们拭目以待。”Some of Langer’s colleagues in the academy see her as a valuable force in psychology, praising her eccentric intelligence and ingenious study designs. Steven Pinker, the writer and Harvard professor, told me that she filled an important niche within the school’s department, which has often harbored “mavericks with nontraditional projects,” including “B. F. Skinner’s utopian novels and manifestoes and Herb Kelman’s encounter groups between Arab and Israeli activists — not to mention Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert,” who would become Ram Dass.兰格在学术圈内的一些同事肯定了她在心理学领域的价值和影响力,赞赏她的独到智慧和巧妙研究设计。哈佛大学教授和作家史蒂文·平克(Steven Pinker)告诉我,她在学院内部占有重要的一席之地,该学院经常育出“搞出非传统项目的特立独行者”,包括“伯尔赫斯·弗雷德里克·斯金纳(B. F. Skinner)的乌托邦小说和宣言、赫布·克尔曼(Herb Kelman)组织的让阿拉伯与以色列活动人士汇聚一堂的会心小组——更不用说蒂莫西·利里(Timothy Leary)和理查德·阿尔珀特(Richard Alpert,已更名为拉姆·达斯[Ram Dass])了。”But Langer’s sensibility can feel at odds with the rigors of contemporary academia. Sometimes she will give equal weight to casually hatched ideas and peer-reviewed studies. She spoke loosely to me of her New Hampshire counterclockwise study as having been “replicated” three times — in Britain, the Netherlands and South Korea. But none of these were lab experiments. They were events made for television. The study that arguably made Langer’s name — the plant study with nursing-home patients — wouldn’t have “much credibility today, nor would it meet the tightened standards of rigor,” says James Coyne, professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania medical school and a widely published bird dog of pseudoscience. (Though, as Coyne also acknowledges, “that is true of much of the work of the ’70s, including my own concerning depressed persons depressing others.”) Langer’s long-term contributions, Coyne says, “will be seen in terms of the thinking and experimenting they encouraged.”然而,兰格的这种感性有时会与当代学术界的严谨格格不入。有时候,她会对信手拈来的灵感和经过同行评议的研究给予同等份量。她含糊地告诉我,她在新罕布什尔州做过的“逆时针”研究,已经在英国、荷兰和韩国“重复”了三次。但这些都不是在严格的实验室条件下开展的实验,而是为制作电视节目而搞的活动。宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania)医学院心理学荣誉退休教授、经常发表文章揭露伪科学的詹姆斯·科因(James Coyne)称,当年那项可以说令兰格成名的研究(养老院老人与植物),“在今天看来并没有多少可信度,也不会满足如今收紧之后的严谨标准。”(但科因也承认,“20世纪70年代的大多数工作,包括我自己的那项‘抑郁症患者可导致其他人抑郁’的研究,也是这种情况。”)科因表示,兰格的长期贡献“将体现于它们所鼓舞的思维和实验”。Four years ago, Langer and her colleagues published in Psychological Science a study that came closest in spirit to the original counterclockwise study in New Hampshire. Here, too, the placebo was a health prime, a situational nudge. They had two groups of subjects go into a flight simulator. One group was told to think of themselves as Air Force pilots and given flight suits to wear while guiding a simulated flight. The other group was told that the simulator was broken and that they should just pretend to fly a plane. Afterward, they gave each group an eyesight test. The group that piloted the flight performed 40 percent better than the other group. Clearly “mind-set manipulation can counteract presumed physiological limits,” Langer said. If a certain kind of prompt could change vision, Langer thought, there was no reason, that you couldn’t try almost anything. The endgame, she has said many times since, is to “return the control of our health back to ourselves.”四年前,兰格及其同事在《心理科学》上发表了一项研究,这是与新罕布什尔州“逆时针”研究在精神上最接近的一项研究。这项研究的安慰剂仍是某种健康触发刺激,某种情景暗示。研究者把两组受试者分别送入飞行模拟器,要求其中一组受试者设想自己是空军飞行员,并让他们在操纵模拟飞行时穿着飞行。而另一组受试者则被告知,模拟器坏了,他们只需要假装在操纵飞机。随后,两组人接受了视力测试。结果“飞行员组”的检测结果比另一组高出40%。兰格总结道,显然“操纵心态可以抵消假定的生理局限”。如果某种提示可以改变视力的话,兰格认为,那就没理由不敢尝试几乎任何东西。在那之后,她多次表示,终极目的是将“健康的控制权交还给我们自己”。Last spring, Langer and a postdoctoral researcher, Deborah Phillips, were chatting when the subject of the counterclockwise study came up. Over the more than 30 intervening years, Langer had explored many dimensions of health psychology and tested the power of the mind to ease various afflictions. Perhaps it was finally time to run the counterclockwise study again. But if they did, she wanted to raise the stakes: Could they shrink the tumors of cancer patients? Langer often says she has no clue where her ideas come from — but in this case it was crystal clear: Metastatic breast cancer killed her mother at 56, when Langer was 29.去年春天,兰格和士后研究员德拉·菲利普斯(Deborah Phillips)在聊天时谈起了“逆时针”研究。自那以来的30多年里,兰格探索了健康心理学的多个层面,做了很多利用思维的威力来缓解各种病痛的试验。也许现在终于到了再次进行“逆时针”的时候了。但是,如果真的要做,这次她想要加大赌注:他们能够缩小癌症患者的肿瘤么?兰格常说,她不知道自己那些稀奇古怪的想法从何而来,但这一次,她的灵感源泉显而易见:在她29岁时,她的母亲因转移性乳腺癌去世,享年仅56岁。Phillips suggested that perhaps they should start with early-stage cancers, ones perceived as more curable, but Langer was firm: It had to be a big, common killer that traditional Western medicine had no answer for. She settled on Stage 4 metastatic breast cancer. Treatment of such cases is usually framed in terms of so-called comfort care. “The medical world has given up on these people,” Langer says.菲利普斯提出,或许她们应当从被认为治愈希望较大的早期癌症着手,但兰格的态度很坚决:必须是一种死亡率较高、常见、传统的西方医学束手无策的癌症。最后,她选择了4期转移性乳腺癌。此类病例的治疗通常被框定于所谓“舒适护理”的范畴。兰格说:“医学界已经放弃了这些患者。”The study, which is planned for the spring, is designed to include three groups of 24 women with Stage 4 breast cancer who are in stable condition and undergoing hormonal therapy. Two groups will gather at resorts in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, under the supervision of Langer and her staff. The experimental group will live for a week in surroundings that evoke 2003, a date when all the women were healthy and hopeful, living without a mortal threat hanging over them. They will be told to try to inhabit their former selves. Few clues of the present day will be visible inside the resorts or, for that matter, outside them. In the living areas, turn-of-the-millennium magazines will be lying around, as will DVDs of films like “Titanic” and “The Big Lebowski.” San Miguel de Allende, which has historically been a place known for its nearby healing mineral springs, is a Unesco World Heritage Site, and many of its buildings look as they did a few hundred years ago. “The whole town is a time capsule,” Langer says. (The other group at San Miguel will have the support of fellow cancer patients but will not live in the past; a third group will not experience any research intervention.)该研究计划将在春季开展,设计招募三组患有4期乳腺癌、病情稳定且正在接受激素治疗的妇女,每组24人。其中两个组将在墨西哥圣米格尔德阿连德的度假胜地集合,接受兰格和她手下研究人员的监管。实验组将“穿越”回2003年——也就是她们仍然身体健康,人生尚未被死亡阴影笼罩,对未来充满憧憬的年代——在这样的环境中生活一周。她们将被告知尽量做回当年的自己。度假区内部不会出现任何与当下有关的东西(就此而言,度假区外也将是这样)。生活区里摆放的将是世纪之交之时的杂志,还有《泰坦尼克号》(Titanic)和《谋杀绿脚趾》(The Big Lebowski)等电影DVD。圣米格尔德阿连德素以其附近具有神秘治愈能力的矿物温泉而著称,被联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产(Unesco World Heritage Site),这里的许多建筑看起来与几百年前一样。兰格说:“该镇宛如一个时间胶囊。”(圣米格尔的另一组受试者将得到癌症病友的持,但不会穿越回过去;第三组则不会受到任何研究干预。)As with the original counterclockwise experiment, subjects will be tested before and after on relevant measures — in this case the size of their tumors and the levels of circulating proteins in their blood known to be made by cancer cells — in addition to variables like mood and energy and pain levels. The experimental group will bring with them the same kinds of primes that the New Hampshire men did, like photographs of their younger selves. “We won’t make them haul their bags up the stairs,” Langer says. But otherwise they will be nudged to do all they can for themselves.与最初的“逆时针”实验一样,受试者在实验前后会接受相关指标的检测,这一次主要检测的是肿瘤的大小和血液中已知由癌细胞产生的循环蛋白的水平,此外还有情绪、精力以及疼痛程度等变量。实验组还会像当年新罕布什尔州实验的参与者那样,携带一些帮助营造当年氛围的触发刺激,如自己年轻时的照片。“我们不会要求她们自己把行李搬上楼,”兰格说,但在其他方面会鼓励她们尽可能自立。The staff will encourage the women to think anew about their circumstances in an attempt to purge any negative messages they have absorbed during their passage through in the medical system. This is crucial, Langer says, because just as the mind can make things better, it can also make things worse. The nocebo effect is the flip side of the more positive placebo effect, and she says that one of the most pernicious nocebo effects can occur when a patient is informed by her doctor that she is ill. The diagnosis itself, Langer says, primes the symptoms the patient expects to feel. “You change a word here or there, and you get vastly different results,” Langer says. She told me about a yet-to-be-published study she did in 2010 that found that breast-cancer survivors who described themselves as “in remission” were less functional and showed poorer general health and more pain than subjects who considered themselves “cured.”研究人员将鼓励这些妇女换一种方式思考自己的处境,力求摒弃她们之前在医疗系统接受治疗期间吸收的负面信息。兰格表示,这一点至关重要,因为正如心态可以让事情向更好的方向发展,它也可能使事情变得更糟。反安慰剂效应是更为积极的安慰剂效应的另一面。兰格称,最糟糕的反安慰剂效应之一可能发生在患者从医生那里得知自己患病的消息时。兰格说,诊断本身就是患者预期自己将会感受到的种种症状的触发刺激。“如果你在这里或那里换一个词,结果可能截然不同,”她表示。她向我介绍了一项她在2010年进行、但尚未发表的研究。该研究发现,与自认为已经“治愈”的乳腺癌幸存者相比,那些认为自己“处于缓解期”的患者身体功能和整体健康状况都较差,还往往感到更加疼痛。So there will be no talk of cancer “victims,” nor anyone “fighting” a “chronic” disease. “When you’re saying ‘fighting,’ you’re aly acknowledging the adversary is very powerful,” Langer says. ; ‘Chronic’ is understood as ‘uncontrollable’ — and that’s not something anyone can know.”因此,实验中将不会提到癌症“受害者”,或者与“慢性”疾病“战斗”。“当你使用‘战斗’这个词时,你已经承认了对手非常强大,”兰格表示。“而‘慢性’往往被理解为‘无法控制’——这不是可以让受试者知道的事情。”Of course, the subjects hope to get better, and everything about the setup is nudging them in that direction. So the study becomes a kind of open placebo experiment. Langer has long believed it’s possible to get people to gin up positive effects in their own body — in effect, to decide to get well. Last fall, she tested that proposition, but in reverse: She recruited a number of healthy test subjects and gave them the mission to make themselves unwell. The subjects watched s of people coughing and sneezing. There were tissues around and those in the experimental group were encouraged to act as if they had a cold. No deception was involved: The subjects weren’t misled, for example, into thinking they were being put into a germ chamber or anything like that. This was explicitly a test to see if they could voluntarily change their immune systems in measurable ways.每个受试者当然都希望自己好转,整个实验的设计都是为了鼓励她们进入好转的轨道。因此,可以说这项研究是某种公开的安慰剂实验。长期以来,兰格一直相信,有可能让人们激发自己体内的积极效应,换句话说就是“决定”让自己好起来。去年秋天,她从反面对这个命题进行了测试:她招募了一批健康的受试者,并交给他们一个任务:让自己感觉不舒。受试者们观看了人们咳嗽和打喷嚏的视频,周围放了很多纸巾,研究人员鼓励实验组像感冒时那样行为。这项实验没有任何欺骗成分:比如受试者没有受到误导,以为自己身处病菌室之类。这是一场明确的试验,目的是看看他们能否以可衡量的方式从主观上改变自己的免疫系统。In the study, which is ongoing, 40 percent of the experimental group reported cold symptoms following the experiment, while 10 percent of those in control group did. Buoyed, Langer ordered further analysis, looking for more concrete proof that they actually caught colds by testing their saliva for the IgA antibody, a sign of elevated immune-system response. In February, the results came in. All of the experimental subjects who had reported cold symptoms showed high levels of the IgA antibody.在这项仍在进行的研究中,40%的实验组受试者报告在实验后出现感冒症状,而对照组中仅有10%的人报告感冒症状。这一结果令兰格大受鼓舞。她要求进行进一步的分析,通过检测受试者唾液中的IgA抗体水平(免疫系统反应升高的表征),寻找他们确实患了感冒的更确凿据。今年2月,结果出来了。报告出现感冒症状的所有受试者的IgA抗体水平都较高。Placebo effects have aly been proven to work on the immune system. But this study could show for the first time that they work in a different way — that is, through an act of will. “As far as we know today, the placebo responses in the immune system are attributable to unconscious classical conditioning,” says the Italian neuroscientist Fabrizio Benedetti, a leading expert in placebo effects. In Benedetti’s experiments, a suggestion planted in the minds of test subjects produced physiological changes directly, the way a dinner bell might goose the salivary glands of a dog. (In one study, healthy volunteers given a placebo — a suggestion that any pain they experienced was actually beneficial to their bodies — were found to produce higher levels of natural painkillers.) “There’s no evidence that expectations play a role as well,” Benedetti says. Langer plans to further analyze the subjects’ saliva to see whether they actually have the rhinovirus and not just elevated IgA.此前已经实安慰剂效应可作用于免疫系统。但这项研究可能首次展示这种效应以一种不同的方式(即一种意志行为)发挥作用。安慰剂效应的权威专家、意大利神经学家法布里齐奥·贝内代蒂(Fabrizio Benedetti)表示:“据我们目前所知,免疫系统中的安慰剂反应可归因于无意识的经典条件反射。”在贝内代蒂的实验中,植入受试者思维中的心理暗示直接引起了生理反应,就像晚餐铃引发的唾液腺分泌一样。(在一项研究中,健康的志愿者得到这样一种安慰剂:一种心理暗示,让他们以为自己所经受的任何疼痛其实都有益于身体健康。结果,他们体内产生的天然镇痛剂水平有所提高。)贝内代蒂指出:“尚无据表明预期也能发挥作用。”现在,兰格计划进一步分析受试者的唾液,看其中是否确实存在鼻病毒,而不只是偏高的IgA抗体水平。The implications of the open placebo — that is, we know the sugar pill is just a sugar pill, but it still works as medicine — are tantalizing. If placebo effects can be harnessed without deception, it would remove many of the ethical issues that surround placebo work. In a study published in the journal Plos One in 2010, Ted Kaptchuk, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, and his colleagues administered a placebo labeled “placebo” to a test group of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Their symptoms declined significantly as compared with a no-treatment control group. “At some level everybody realizes they themselves are the placebo,” Langer says.公开安慰剂(即我们知道自己用的只是糖丸,但它还是会产生药物的效果)的潜在影响是十分诱人的。如果无需欺骗就能收到安慰剂的效果,困扰安慰剂研究的很多伦理问题将不复存在。在2010年发表于《公共科学图书馆期刊》(PLOS One)的一项研究中,哈佛医学院教授特德·卡普特查克(Ted Kaptchuk)及其同事们给予患有肠易激综合征的试验组患者标有“安慰剂”字样的安慰剂。与无治疗的对照组相比,他们的症状显著减轻了。兰格说:“在某种程度上,每个人都意识到自己就是安慰剂。”Langer’s cancer study has had to clear the hurdles of three human-subjects ethics boards — one from Mexico, one from Harvard’s psychology department and, for a time, one from the University of Southern California’s medical school, where until recently Debu Tripathy, an oncologist who is recruiting subjects for Langer’s study, was a professor of medicine. In June, progress stalled when the board at U.S.C. asked that the language be tweaked. “There’s so much stuff that’s totally outrageous in this world,” Langer told me at the time. “They want me to add a consent form for the people to sign saying there’s no known benefit to them. But that just introduces a nocebo effect!” (The study now has to clear the ethics board at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, where Tripathy presently works.)兰格的癌症研究在启动之前必须得到三个人类受试者伦理委员会的批准。这三个机构一个位于墨西哥,一个位于哈佛大学心理学系,南加州大学(University of Southern California, U.S.C.)医学院一度也是其中之一,为兰格的研究招募受试者的肿瘤学家德布·崔帕蒂(Debu Tripathy)直到不久前一直是那里的医学教授。今年6月,当南加州大学的委员会要求他们对所用的语言“稍加改进”后,该项目陷入了停滞。“实验的很多内容对这个世界是离谱的,”当时兰格对我表示。“他们要我增加一份同意书,让受试者签字声明:他们知道该实验对他们没有任何已知的益处。但是,这恰恰引入了一个反安慰剂效应!”(目前该研究需要得到位于休斯敦的得州大学安德森癌症中心[University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center]的伦理委员会的批准,崔帕蒂现在在那里工作。)Like the men in New Hampshire, Langer’s cancer patients in San Miguel will pass a richly diverting week. In this case, art classes, cooking classes and writing classes will help distract them from the brute d of their circumstances and re-engage them in life. The terror of late-stage cancer can be as debilitating as the physical reality, Tripathy says. Some sufferers, he says, show symptoms akin to PTSD. There’s strong evidence that the support of other people boosts the quality of life for cancer patients. There’s less evidence that it improves their health prospects.就像新罕布什尔州研究中的老人那样,兰格的圣米格尔研究中的癌症患者也将度过精纷呈的一周。这一次将开设美术课、烹饪课和写作课,帮助她们分散对自己病情的极度恐惧,重新投入生活。崔帕蒂表示,像身体现实那样,对晚期癌症的恐惧本身也可能削弱患者的能力。他说,有些患者表现出类似于创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)的症状。目前已经有强有力的据表明,其他人的持可大大提高癌症患者的生活质量,但这种持能够改善患者健康前景的据相对较少。I asked Tripathy whether there’s any precedent for what Langer is trying to do. “Well, there are many examples in medicine where improvement in the emotional state seems also to bring about some improvement in the disease state,” he said. “We know, for example, that Tibetan monks can meditate and lower their blood pressure. People with hypertension, they embark on behavioral changes, and you can see the improvement in the medical indexes, like fewer heart attacks. But cancer? That’s a harder thing to fathom.”我向崔帕蒂请教兰格试图进行的研究有没有任何先例。“嗯,医学上情绪状态的改善似乎带来病情改善的例子还挺不少的,”他说。“例如,我们知道,西藏僧侣可以通过打坐冥想降低血压。高血压患者在做出行为改变后,医学指标会有所改善,比如,心脏病发作减少了。至于癌症,那就更难说清楚了。”Positive psychology doesn’t have a great track record as a way to fight cancer. Indeed, when James Coyne and colleagues followed 1,093 people with advanced head-and-neck cancer over nine years, they found even the most optimistic subjects lived no longer than the most pessimistic ones.积极心理学在对付癌症方面的记录并不太好。的确,詹姆斯·科因和他的同事曾经对1093名晚期头颈癌患者进行长达九年的随访,结果发现,即使是最乐观的受试者也并不比最悲观者活得长。Some cancer patients respond to interventions better than others, Tripathy notes. “But even with high-dose chemotherapy, you rarely see ‘complete response,’ which is total disappearance” of advanced breast cancer. “So if we saw anything like that, boy, that would hit the medical journals in a hurry.”崔帕蒂指出,有些癌症患者对干预的反应好于其他人。“不过,即使是使用大剂量化疗,你也很少能看到‘完全反应’,即(晚期乳腺癌)完全消失……所以,如果我们能看到那样的结果,那很快会在医学期刊上引起轰动。”One day in Puerto Vallarta in February, Langer sat on the patio of her hillside home. An iguana the length of a celery rib scooted across a high railing, and the dogs went bananas. “That’s Ada,” Langer said. “Or is it Ida? There are two — it’s hard to tell them apart.” When the iguanas first appeared and began devouring the hibiscus, Langer was startled. Now she and Nancy feed them petals for lunch. “That’s the way it is,” she said. “You can be scared. You give it a name, and then it’s a pet.”2月的一天,兰格坐在她位于巴亚尔塔港的山景房的露台上。一条有芹菜茎那么长的鬣鳞蜥飞快地翻越了高高的栏杆,几只狂躁不已。“这是埃达,”兰格说。“是艾达吗?它们有两个,很难分得清。”当鬣鳞蜥第一次出现,并开始狼吞虎咽地吃芙蓉花时,兰格吓了一跳。现在,她和南希自在地把花瓣喂给它们吃。“事情就是这样的,”她说。“你可能会害怕。你也可以给它取个名字,让它变成一只宠物。”Langer peered out over the deep blue sea, in the direction of a lagoon, where early in her career she conducted experiments on whether dolphins were more likely to want to swim with mindful people. In the last few days, she had been exchanging emails with a writer who wanted to come stay with her for a couple of weeks, taking notes for a screenplay for a Hollywood biopic.兰格凝视着环礁湖方向上深蓝色的大海,在她的职业生涯早期,她曾做实验研究海豚是否更愿意跟处于正念状态的人一起游泳。在过去的几天里,她在与一位作家互通电子邮件,那人想要和她一起待上一两个星期,为一部好莱坞传记片的剧本采集素材。Langer told me that she chose San Miguel for her new counterclockwise study primarily because the town had made “an offer I couldn’t refuse.” A group of local businesspeople, convinced of the value of having Langer’s name attached to San Miguel, arranged for lodging to be made available free to Langer. They also encouraged her to build a Langer Mindfulness Institute, which will take part in research and run retreats. (A local developer donated a beautiful casa, next to his Nick Faldo-designed golf course, to serve as staff quarters for the institute.) Starting sometime next year, adults will be able to sign up for a paid, weeklong counterclockwise experience, presumably with a chance at some of the same rejuvenative benefits the New Hampshire test subjects enjoyed.兰格告诉我,她选择在圣米格尔进行新的“逆时针”研究,主要是因为该镇提供的优厚条件让她“无法拒绝”。一群当地商人深信将兰格的名字与圣米格尔联系在一起将很有价值,于是他们为兰格的实验安排了免费住宿。他们还鼓励她建设一座兰格正念研究所(Langer Mindfulness Institute),既开展研究,又运营静思休养之地。(当地的一位开发商还捐赠给她一栋精美的城堡,用作研究所员工的宿舍,这座城堡位于他那由尼克·佛度[Nick Faldo,英国职业高尔夫球手]设计的高尔夫球场旁边。)从明年的某个时候开始,成年人将可以报名参加为期一周的“逆时针”付费体验,想必将和新罕布什尔州实验的受试者们一样,有机会享受某些返老还童的益处。Langer says she is in conversation with health and business organizations in Australia about establishing another research facility that would also accept paying customers, who will learn to become more mindful through a variety of cognitive-behavioral techniques and exercises. She has aly opened a mindfulness institute in Bangalore, India, where researchers are undertaking a study to look at whether mindfulness can stem the sp of prostate cancer.兰格说,她也正在与澳大利亚的一些保健和商业组织商谈建立第二家研究机构,该机构也将接受付费客户,他们将通过多种认知行为技巧和练习来学习变得更加专注。她已经在印度班加罗尔开设了一家正念研究所,那里的研究人员正在进行一项研究,探讨正念能否阻止前列腺癌的扩散。Langer makes no apologies for the paid retreats, nor for what will be their steep price. (This, too, is calculated: In the absence of other cues, people tend to place disproportionate value on things that cost more. Dan Ariely, a psychologist at Duke, and his colleagues found that pricier placebos were more effective than cheap ones.) To my question of whether such a nakedly commercial venture will undermine her academic credibility, Langer rolled her eyes a bit. “Look, I’m not 40 years old. I’ve paid my dues, and there’s nothing wrong with making this more widely available to people, since I deeply believe it.”兰格不认为这种静养机构将会收费,而且价格高昂有什么错。(这一点其实也是经过盘算的:在缺乏其他暗示的情况下,人们倾向于超出比例地注重比较昂贵的东西。杜克大学[Duke]心理学家丹·艾瑞里[Dan Ariely]及其同事们发现,价格较高的安慰剂比便宜安慰剂更有效。)我问她,此类明显商业化的项目会不会削弱她的学术可信度?兰格微微转了转她的眼睛。“你看,我不是40岁的人了。我已经做出了自己该做的贡献,再说,将它推广给更多的人并没有什么不妥,因为我深信它一定有效。”Medical colleagues have asked Langer if she is setting herself up to fail with the cancer study — and perhaps underappreciating the potential setbacks to her work. It’s also possible that subjects who don’t improve could feel more demoralized by the experience. In her memoir, “Bright-sided,” the journalist Barbara Ehrenreich wrote scorchingly about the sunshine brigade that bombarded her with “positive thinking” as she suffered through breast cancer. Under those conditions, patients who don’t get better might feel as if they themselves were somehow to blame.医学界的同事们问兰格,她这项癌症研究会不会弄巧成拙,害自己栽个跟头?或许她低估了自己一辈子的研究成果因此遭遇挫折的潜在风险?还有一个可能性是,病情没能好转的受试者因这一体验而更加意志消沉。记者芭芭拉·埃伦赖希(Barbara Ehrenreich)在她的回忆录《失控的正向思考》(Bright-sided)中,尖锐地批评了当她身患乳腺癌时,各路“阳光族”向她狂轰滥炸“积极思维”。在那种情况下,病情未见起色的患者会觉得仿佛是自己做错了什么。After a lecture in 2010, in which she’d discussed how when we talk about “fighting” cancer we actually give the disease power, a man buttonholed Langer and laid into her. His wife had died of breast cancer. “He said she had fought it, and I made it seem that it was her fault,” Langer told me.2010年,兰格在一个讲座上谈到,当我们说“与癌症战斗”的时候,我们实际上赋予了疾病威力。讲座结束后,一名男子拦住了她,劈头痛斥了她的观点。原来他的妻子死于乳腺癌。“他说她一直在与病魔抗争,而按照我的说法,似乎这全是她的错,”兰格向我转述道。Langer apologized to the man. “Those are good points, and I’m sorry I didn’t address them,” she said. “But let me explain to you that it’s the culture that teaches us that we have no control. I’m not blaming your wife; I’m blaming the culture.” Langer imagines a day when blame isn’t the first thing people reach for when things go awry. Instead, we will simply bring to bear the power of our own minds — which she believes will turn out to be far greater than we imagined.兰格向那名先生道了歉。“你说的这些都很有道理,我很抱歉我没有应对这些问题,”她说。“但请让我解释,是文化让我们觉得自己无能为力。我并没有埋怨你的妻子;我只是在谴责这种文化。”兰格梦想着有那么一天,当事情出错时,人们最先做出的反应不是责备。相反,我们将只是充分发挥自己的思维威力——她相信,这力量将比我们所想像的大得多。 /201501/351627

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  Chinese women who are dating non-Chinese guys often express various issues which displease them – and the issues are mostly due to cultural differences. One of our forum ers sent us a list of what he considers the ten most common complaints of Chinese girlfriends。那些和非华裔的男生交往的华人女孩常常会对各种事情吐槽,让她们的男友感到郁闷——她们吐槽的原因往往是出于文化差异。一位读者向我们的网络论坛寄了一份清单,列举了他认为中国女友最爱吐槽的十句话。1. You don#39;t carry my handbag!你不帮我拎包!Most foreign boyfriends believe that carrying a handbag of a girlfriend is basically the opposite of manliness. But this is a very common demand of Chinese girlfriends. Chinese girls usually carry useless and unnecessary stuff in their bags。大多数的外籍男孩都相信,为自己的女朋友拎包是完全有违男士作风的行为。然而中国女友却常常要求他们这样做。中国的女孩子们喜欢在她们的包里放上各种用不上,也没必要带着的东西。2. You don#39;t text or call me three times a day!你没有一天三遍给我发短信或者打电话!Chinese girlfriends usually demand that you stay in contact with them during the day and show that you care for them by calling or sending them text messages at least two or three times a day。中国的女友常常要求你必须每天与她保持联系,还要每天给她打两三个电话或者发两三个短信,以表示你对她的关心。3. You don#39;t meet me often!你和我见面的时间太少!If you don#39;t visit or meet your girlfriend often she will call you selfish and this is a word Chinese girls use if you don#39;t do something they want. However, for foreigners this word does not seem so strong and they consider it quite normal to be called selfish。如果你不常常去女朋友家串门或者约她见面,她就会说你自私——如果你不按她的要求做某件事,她就会用这个词来指责你。可是,在外国人看来,这个词似乎无关痛痒,他们认为自私是很正常的。4. Give less time to your friends!少花点时间陪你的哥们!Sometimes, Chinese girls will complain that they don#39;t like your friends, but this is not exactly true: They just want the guy to spend less time with his friends and more with them。有的时候,中国女孩会抱怨说她不喜欢你的哥们儿,但这并不是她真正的想法:她只是想要男友少花点时间陪自己的朋友,多花点时间陪自己。5. Why don#39;t you take me to the bar?你为什么不带我一起去酒吧呢?She will often complain that you don#39;t take her when you go out to a bar and she will accuse you of not taking her because of various reasons。她会常常抱怨说,你去酒吧喝酒的时候没有带她一起去,她会以各种理由指责你不带她一起去。6. No fashion sense不懂得时尚潮流7. You don#39;t know Chinese culture。你不理解中国文化You will hear this sentence very often from your Chinese girlfriend - that you should learn more about Chinese culture and start following it。你会常常听到你的中国女友对你说这句话——你应该多学学中国文化,并且要身体力行。8. Eat more!多吃点!It sounds weird but it#39;s true: A Chinese girlfriend will suggest that you eat more and ;get healthier;. The more you eat the healthier you will be - this is a Chinese saying and they truly follow it and try it on their boyfriends。这听起来有点诡异,但的确如此!中国女友会劝你努力加餐饭,“多吃多健康”。也就是说,你吃得越多,身体就越健康。——这是一个中文谚语,她很相信这个说法,还在男友身上验这个说法。9.Eat less!少吃点!Sooner or later you will start eating more and another complaint you will get is that you eat so much. Your Chinese girlfriend will start saying that you should eat less and this will be good for your health. Suddenly, the above-mentioned Chinese saying and perception will change。或早或晚,你开始努力加餐,这时她又开始抱怨你吃得太多了。你的中国女友开始说你应该少吃点,这对你的身体健康有好处。忽然之间,之前她践行的中文谚语和养生观念就变样了。10. Shopping购物Last but not least, Chinese girlfriends will complain to you that you do not take her shopping. Yes! She is right - take her shopping often, even window shopping. She wants to hang out with you。最后但也最重要的是,中国女友会抱怨你不带她去购物。是的,她是对的!——你要常常带她去购物,甚至只是随便看看。她就是想和你一起出门逛逛。 /201507/386129

  When your sleeping, your body is hard at work for you so why not try one or all of these beauty habits to give your body a little help. So that when you wake up you will not only feel refreshed but gorgeous as well。当你睡着的时候,你的身体仍处于努力工作的状态。那么,为什么不尝试着用一些美容习惯来给你身体一点帮助呢。当你醒来的时候,你不但会觉得自己焕然一新,而且更加美丽。1 Remove all your makeup-Yes, all of it卸掉所有的妆容2 Use two pillows用两个枕头3) Do a spot treatment…with a purifying mask用面膜净化脸上的污点4) Turn on a humidifier打开加湿器5) Go to town with hand cream睡前用护手霜6) Sleep on a luxe pillowcase用一个奢侈的枕套(如蚕丝枕套)7) Pin your hair back睡觉时盘(扎)起头发8) Get eight hours of sleep睡够8小时9) Try a leave-on exfoliator适当去角质10) Use eye cream用眼霜Vocabulary:1、gorgeous 英 adj. 华丽的,灿烂的;极好的2、makeup 英 n. 化妆品;组成;补充;补考3、pillowsn. 枕头(pillow的复数);靠垫v. 靠(pillow的三单形式);搁在枕上;给…当枕头4、spot 英 n. 地点;斑点vt. 认出;弄脏;用灯光照射vi. 沾上污渍;满是斑点adj. 现场的;现货买卖的adv. 准确地;恰好5、purifying n. 净化;精制v. 使纯净;精炼(purify的ing形式)6、humidifier 英 n. 增湿器,[建] 加湿器7、exfoliator n. 去角质 /201507/386189Poets are sensitive, ethereal creatures, ineffectual dreamers obsessed with metaphors and finding the right rhythms and rhymes. They#39;re generally harmless, right? Not always. On this list, there are killers, crooks, plotters, rakes, a blackmailer, several revolutionaries, heartbreakers, duelists, drunkards, an opium fiend, a serious oddball, and even one fascist. To borrow the words of Lady Caroline Lamb, who played mistress to one of them, these men were mad, bad, and dangerous to know.人们印象中诗人是机智敏感,超凡脱俗,痴迷修辞和韵律的梦想家。他们通常应该不会惹什么麻烦,对不对?但事实并非如此。以下列出的十位诗人简直无恶不作,他们不是杀人放火,欺诈勒索就是决斗厮杀,策划阴谋,他们还造反,负心,酗酒,吸食鸦片,放荡不羁,行为古怪甚至还有一个法西斯主义者。借其中一人的情妇卡洛琳·兰姆的话来说这真是一群疯狂,恶劣又危险的人。10. Fran漀椀猀 Villon10. 弗朗索瓦·维庸Villon by name and villain by nature, he was a murderer, thief, and an all-round low-life. He was also the finest lyric poet in France in the 15th century. Born in either 1431 or 1432, he was brought up by a professor of canon law in Paris. After leaving university in 1452, his life descended into a series of brawls, imprisonments, and exiles. His only appearances within the historical record come from prison data.维庸可以说是干尽坏事,他不仅是小偷还是杀人犯。但也是十五世纪法国最优秀的抒情诗人。维庸1431年或1432年出生于巴黎,被一名教士收养。1452年离开大学之后,他的生活一落千丈,打架闹事,锒铛入狱,多次被驱逐流放。历史上对他的记载基本都与他入狱相关。Villon by name and villain by nature, he was a murderer, thief, and an all-round low-life. He was also the finest lyric poet in France in the 15th century. Born in either 1431 or 1432, he was brought up by a professor of canon law in Paris. After leaving university in 1452, his life descended into a series of brawls, imprisonments, and exiles. His only appearances within the historical record come from prison data.1455年,维庸在巴黎醉酒后,与人争执中捅死了一名律师。他本应被逐出巴黎,却得到了王室的赦免。1456年,他又带领着一帮强盗从纳瓦拉学院里偷了500顶金冠。因此再次遭到驱逐。1457年,他在布洛瓦刑,1461年,在穆兰刑。维庸最后出现在巴黎的记录是1462年的盗窃罪。刑满释放后,他又参与了一场打架,被判处死刑,后改为流放。1463年之后,他就彻底消失了。Despite his lifestyle, Villon was a master of the intricate poetic forms of the ballade, the rondeau, and the chanson. His longer works touch on cosmology, satire, and religious symbolism. His work is rife with themes of failed love, melancholia, human suffering, lost time, and the ubiquity of death, featuring a cast of princes and prostitutes mired in Parisian brothels and drinking dens. Rimbaud revived his work in the 19th century, while Rossetti translated it into English, giving us the magnificent line “Where are the snows of yesteryear?”虽然行径不端,但是维庸在叙事诗,回旋诗和香颂上造诣颇高。他的长诗涉及到宇宙学,讽刺和宗教象征等方面。作品中充满了对爱情失意,痛苦忧郁,时光逝去以及死亡不可避免的诉说,多以各种王子和沉溺在妓院和酒馆为主题。19世纪,兰波重整他的作品并由罗塞蒂译成英语,才使我们领略到了“Where are the snows of yesteryear”这样精的诗句。 /201505/372855

  1. Everyone needs free space每个人都需要自由空间Many people think that a true love means that they should spend 24 hours a day together with the person they love. Such schedule will make you lose your identity in a quite short period of time. Remember, everyone needs some free time and space to satisfy their personal needs and do things that make them feel alive. By all means, don’t let your identity die, because it will be difficult to bounce back.许多人认为,真爱意味着他们应该24小时和爱人在一起。然而这样的日程安排会让你很快就失去自我。记住,每个人都需要一些自由时间跟空间来满足他们个人的需求、做一些能让他们感觉充满活力的事情。无论如何,不要丧失自我,因为找回自我会很困难。2. The lust period is temporary只是暂时的This wonderful period usually makes you fly on the wings of love. When you are extremely happy, you spend hours dressing to impress your partner and talking about love till the dawn. Unfortunately, the period of butterflies in the stomach ends fast andamorousness turns into a real and adequate love. Love is the period when you are y to share both good and bad with the person you love. Love really grows when you have no fear to lose and when you absolutely accept all pros and cons of your significant other.恋爱中四射的这个奇妙阶段,通常会让你恋爱的小翅膀飞个不停。当你非常高兴的时候,你会花很多时间打扮自己来打动你的伴侣,跟他谈论爱情直到天明。不幸的是,这段心中小鹿乱撞的时期会很快结束,变成了一种真正充分的爱。这段时期的爱情,是你准备好跟你的爱人分享你的好与坏。爱只有在你不惧怕失去、完全接受另一半的好与坏的时候才会真正成长。3. Other people don’t belong to you别人并不属于你一个人Nowadays we live in a democratic world where people are free and have equal rights and responsibilities. Moreover, we are free to express ourselves and lead an independent life. No matter how long you’ve been together, you should understand that the person you love isn’t your property. People who really love each other are committed to this beautiful feeling and treat each other with respect. Your love is your muse but not your possession. You cannot control the behavior and every step of your partner, because it will only break trust in your relationship. The only adequate thing you can do is to trust him and try to create common rules of commitment both of you should stick to.如今的我们生活在一个民主的社会里,每个人都是自由的、他们拥有同等的权利和责任。除此之外,我们可以自由地表达自己的想法,过独立的生活。不管你们在一起多久了,你都应该明白你爱的那个人不是你的个人财产。真正相爱的两个人会对这段美妙的感情履行承诺、互相尊重。你的爱是你自己的想法而非真正占有。你不能控制另一半的所有行为,因为这只会破坏你们之间的信任。你唯一能做的就是相信他,试着去创造一种你们两个人都能遵守的承诺规则。4. Complete yourself完善你自己I do agree that other people can improve you and fill your life with joy and wonderful colors, but you should realize that people will never complete you or live up to your expectations. There’s no need for validation from your partner. First of all, you should learn to cultivate self-love before you can share it with your beloved. Try to develop yourself until you find yourself confident and complete. It requires you to change your actions, thoughts, emotions and behaviors.我赞成其他人能够帮助你提高自我、并且让你的生活更加美好和丰富多,但是你应该意识到,人们永远不会去成全你或者满足你的期望。没有必要事事都要得到另一半的批准。首先,在能够和爱人分享你的爱之前,你要学会爱自己。试着提升自己,慢慢地你会变得更加自信、更加完整。这就需要你改变你的行动、想法、情感和言谈举止。5. Don’t even try to change your partner不要试图改变你的另一半You can change many things in this world, but it’s almost impossible to change your partner’s outlook and habits. All you can do is to show the right path to your partner and if they have an internal desire to change, they’ll make a shift. A humanpsyche has the capacity to ignore things and ideas strongly imposed by others. This way your partner may achieve temporary improvements and then return to their casual habits again. If you cannot stand something in your partner, then you should shift your energy and react to the situation in a different way. It’s better to stay calm and respond everything in cold blood.在这个世界上你可以很多东西,但是几乎不可能改变另一半的观点和习惯。你所能做的只是把一些正确的方法展现给他们,如果他们内心想要改变的话,他们会主动做出改变的。人类的灵魂会习惯性忽视别人强加给他们的思想或行为,用强加的方式可能会让你的另一半暂时得到提高,但是不久之后他们又会回到原来的样子。如果你不能忍受另一半的某些缺点,你就应该把精力放在改变自己身上,用不同的方式去应付各种状况。不管面对什么事情,都最好保持冷静。6. Get rid of your inner conflicts摆脱你内心的纠结Your attitude and behavior in your relationship can be the reflection of your fears and anxiety which reign in your sub consciousness. If you want to have a healthy relationship, you should start from healing your inner world from fears and conflicts. Plus, you need to do all possible things to boost your self-esteem. Begin to love yourself and you’ll be able to share your love with somebody else.你在恋爱中的态度和行为举止,都会反映出你潜意识里的恐惧和担忧。如果你想要有一段健康的恋爱关系,你就应该从治愈你内心世界的恐惧和担忧开始。还有,你需要尽可能地做一些提升自己自尊心的事情。开始爱护自己,这样你才能够去爱别人。7. Learn how to let go gracefully学着优雅地放手It seems that some relationships teach us how to honorably let go. After a considerable reflection on the opportunity to build a happy and healthy relationship, you may realize that this love doesn’t cost your time and energy to continue. Unhappy relationships teach you to struggle for happiness. Furthermore, you should use the opportunity to let go of the past in order to be able to find the true love of all your life and cultivate a long and loving relationship. Don’t become disheartened the next time you face a relationship break-up, because it may help you develop a new vision of the world and start a better relationship.似乎有一些恋爱总会教我们怎么去体面地放手。在建立一个幸福和健康的恋爱关系过程中,相当多的反思之后,你会明白这份爱不会再继续浪费你的时间和精力。不快乐的恋爱教会你如何为幸福做斗争。除此之外,你应该把握这次对过去放手的机会,从而能够找寻你生命中的真爱、并和TA培养一段持久有爱的恋爱关系。当你再次面临分手的时候,别泄气,因为这有助于你换个视角看世界、并开始新的恋情。 /201506/378594

  Tianma - Gastrodia elata (Latin name) 天麻 Tianma is a very precious Chinese herb growing in the valleys and is classified into single group Tianma.天麻是一种珍贵的中药材,生长在深山峡谷之中,一株只长一个天麻的,叫独麻;一株长一窝天麻的,叫窝麻。The major function of Tianma is to cure liver wind, dizziness and infantile convulsions of children, etc. with distinct effect. In China, Tianma grows in many remote mountain areas but the best are in Baokang county of northwest region of Hubei province. Legend has it that there lived a clan of hundreds of families deep in Jingshan mountain living and laboring in peace and contentment. But somehow in a year, the clan was shocked by a queer disease. Patients would have splitting headache, serious limb twitch, or even paralysis. People resorted to medicine and divine but all efforts turned out in vain.天麻主治肝风头痛、眩晕、小儿惊风等症,功效显著。中国不少深山都产天麻,但保康出的药效最好,这里还有个传说故事。在很古的时候,荆山深处有一个部落,住着百十户人家,过着安居乐业的生活。这一年,部落里突然流行起一种奇怪的疾病。这种病一旦缠身,头痛得像裂开似的,严重的会四肢抽搐,半身瘫痪。部落里的人们占卜求医,但都不见效果。The tribe leader was baffled by his people’s sufferings and was resolved to pay a visit to a renowned doctor in the hope of finding the cure.部落首领平时弄点草药给人们治治头痛脑热。他见人们被病魔折磨而自己又束手无策,心中十分难受,就决心去访求名医,寻找治愈这种病的药物和方法。Having heard of a skilled doctor in Wudao Valley who was able to cure this disease, he started for the doctor immediately with enough food. Wudao Valley was situated among deep and sparsely populated mountains. Could he get to the skilled doctor?这位首领听说五道峡有一个神医能治疗这种病,于是带了干粮披星戴月,向五道峡进发。五道峡是山中蜿蜒曲折的大峡谷,四周崇山峻岭环绕,人迹稀少,到哪里去寻找神医呢?Having tramped over hills and dales, the chief finally met an old man gathering firewood in a forest. He asked about the skilled doctor and was told the doctor was in a village called Shuangti.这位首领翻越了一座座山峰,走遍了每道山坡终于在一片树林里遇到了一位打柴的老汉。他想从老汉那里打听神医住在什么地方,老汉打量了部落首领一下,说神医这几天到双梯寨去了,让他到那里找一找。The chief bid farewell to the old man and continued his way to Shuangti village which was actually a natural stone village built on precipitous cliffs. He climbed up arduously and reached at last. The moment he entered the village gate, he felt dizzy and fell down. But in a few moments, he awoke and stopped twitching finding himself in a cave. Looking up and down his eyes fell on some plant roots on a stone table.这位首领辞别了老汉,又急急忙忙地向双梯寨赶去。这双梯寨,实为耸立在万仞绝壁上的天然石寨。一路上山道崎岖,奇峰插云,这位首领吃尽千万苦,终于攀上了双梯寨。没想到他刚进寨门就感到头晕目眩,一头栽进一洞中,没过多久,四肢也不再抽搐了。他起身打量洞内的东西,发现石桌上堆着一些植物块茎。At that time, an old man came inside with a bow of medicine in his hands y for him to drink. The tribe leader recognized the old man as the one who he had previously met in the mountains. He was about to say something but was stopped by the old man. “You were infected with the same disease that had been haunting your people and the herb you need is on the stone table over there.” said the old man “and they should be preserved in the shadow buried under decayed leaves.” The tribe leader took deep bows to express his profound gratitude to the old man, but when he looked up the old man was aly gone. The chief knew clearly that encountered a miracle doctor as well as miracle herb.正在这时,洞外走进来一位老汉,手中端着一碗药,让部落首领喝下去。这位首领一看,眼前的老汉正是在五道峡树林里遇到的那位打柴人。他刚要说话,老汉笑哈哈地拦住他,告诉他生的病和总落的人们生的病一样,要靠一种药材医治。药材已准备好,就放在石桌,让他病好后带回部落里去。这位首领躬身下拜,感谢老汉的救命大恩。老汉告诉他说,这种;药材; 如果吃完,就把它藏在背阴的烂树叶里,它就会永远用不完。这位首领低身拜,待他抬起头时,老汉已不见踪影了。这位首领知道自己遇到的老汉是神医,他的药材是天赐之物。就把老汉备好的药材放进口袋里,背回到部落里去了。Back home, the chief stewed the herb for all patients to drink. Shortly after, patients all recovered gradually. He hid the rest of herb under shady and rotten leafs as the old man advised. Since then, this herb grew prosperously year in year out.回到部落,这道领把神医赐的药材熬了一大锅,让生病的人喝下,几锅药水一喝,部落里生病的人逐渐好了。他把剩下的药材,依照神医所嘱,藏在背阴处的烂树叶里,从此,这药材就一年年地繁殖下来。.Everybody believed the herb to be panacea from the heaven to cure dizziness and hemiplegia . So people called it “Tianma”.人们说这药材是神医所赐的上天之物,又专治头晕目眩,半身麻痹瘫痪,就把这种药材叫做天麻了。 /201504/372198

  Fed up of with being constantly groped by women, the waiters of Scottish pub ‘Hootananny’, in Inverness, have decided to stop wearing their kilts. That’s a pretty big deal, since Hootananny staff have been wearing tartan to match the traditional Scottish atmosphere, ever since the place opened. But now the guys say that they’re being sexually harassed by female revelers who lift up their kilts to check if they are true Scotsmen!在因弗内斯,苏格兰风格酒吧Hootananny的男性务员们因不堪女顾客的骚扰,决定不再穿苏格兰短裙。这可是件不得了的事,为了与店内传统的苏格兰氛围相衬,Hootananny的员工们从开业伊始就穿着格子裙了。但是现在这些人表示不愿再受女酒鬼们的性骚扰了,她们就为了检验他们是不是真正的苏格兰男人竟然去掀他们的苏格兰裙!According to Hootananny assistant manager Iain Howie, the harassment usually occurs during the weekends when the pub is at its busiest. “You get large groups of drinking women circling around when you are collecting glasses and asking whether you are a true Scotsman,” he said. “And they find out for themselves。”Hootananny的副经理伊恩·豪伊说,这些骚扰一般都发生在周末最忙的时候。“当你在整理玻璃杯的时候,一大群醉醺醺的女人把你围在中间问你是不是苏格兰男人,”他说道,“然后她们还要亲自检查一番。”“The first few times it’s funny,” he added. “But when it is really busy and everyone has to work fast and hard, and your hands are full of glasses, you feel quite vulnerable. You are thinking, ‘are you going to get broken glasses, or is your kilt going to get lifted up again?’ They see it as a bit of fun, but it is a bit of an embarrassment。”“第一次碰上这种事时会觉得很有趣,”他补充道,“但是在店里真的很忙、每个人都忙得团团转满手酒杯的时候,你就会变得很焦虑,你会想:‘你会不会打破杯子,或者你的裙子是不是又要被掀起来?’客人们觉得这样很好玩,但是对我们来说真的很尴尬。”Hootananny founder Kit Fraser has taken his staff’s side on the issue, describing it as ‘pure sexism’. “It may seem funny but it is serious, too – the women are sticking their hands up their kilts. Can you imagine if I went into a restaurant and stuck my hand up a girl’s skirt? I would be taken to the police station and rightly so。”Hootananny的创始人基特·费雷泽在这件事情上是持他的员工的,他称这件事“完全是性别歧视”。“女客人伸手去掀务员的裙子这件事,看似好玩,实际上却要严肃对待。你能想象当我到餐馆里伸手去掀女孩的裙子会有什么后果吗?我会被带去警察局,这才是正确的对待方式。” /201507/386997。

  When a group of wealthy investors compete with each other to buy an asset, surely they have a clear idea of its financial value? Jussi Pylkk#228;nen, president of Christie’s, who on Monday night auctioned Picasso’s “Les Femmes d’Alger” (Version O) to an anonymous buyer for 9.4m, thinks they do.当一群富有的投资者竞购某项资产时,他们肯定特别清楚这项资产值多少钱喽?佳士得(Christie#39;s)总裁尤西#8226;皮尔卡宁(Jussi Pylkk#228;nen)认为确实如此。上周一晚,皮尔卡宁以1.794亿美元的价格把毕加索(Picasso)的《阿尔及尔的女人(0版)》(Les Femmes d’Alger (Version O))拍卖给了一位匿名买主。“People sometimes think of buying art as a frivolous occupation but these bidders are very conscious of what the object is worth, and they make decisions in an extremely considered way,” Mr Pylkk#228;nen assured me afterwards. He emphasised that the final bids for the Picasso, in a New York auction that raised 6m for 34 works of 20th-century art, proceeded in careful, 0,000 increments.“人们有时认为购买艺术品是一种无用的占有,但这些竞标者很了解标的的价值,他们是经过深思熟虑才做出决定的,”皮尔卡宁后来向我保说。他强调称,买家对毕加索画作最后报价时,小心翼翼地每次只加价50万美元。上周一的纽约拍卖会上成交了34件20世纪艺术品,成交金额达7.06亿美元。Amid record-breaking auctions in London and New York, art is increasingly treated as a financial asset. “Swamped”, a painting by Peter Doig, a 56-year-old Scottish artist, sold for .9m on Monday night. Billionaires fly to Art Basel Miami Beach to buy from big galleries, private bankers tell clients to diversify into art; masterpieces clog free port warehouses in Geneva.随着伦敦和纽约拍卖会屡次拍出破纪录价格,艺术品越来越被当做金融资产对待。56岁苏格兰艺术家彼得#8226;多伊格(Peter Doig)的《沼泽地》(Swamped)上周一晚以2590万美元成交。亿万富豪们飞往巴塞尔迈阿密海滩艺术览会(Art Basel Miami Beach),从大型画廊购进作品,私人家们告诉客户要提高资产配置多样性,增加艺术品配置;著名作品堆满了日内瓦的自由港仓库。But paintings are not securities. The financial value of any work of art remains as unknowable and intangible as the Mona Lisa’s smile. As the economist William Baumol put it 30 years ago, the prices of paintings “float more or less aimlessly#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;exacerbated by the activities of those who treat such art objects as ‘investments’”. Those seeking intrinsic value, in the financial sense, must look elsewhere.但画作不是券。任何一件艺术品的金钱价值仍像蒙娜丽莎(Mona Lisa)的微笑一样不可知晓、难以确定。正如经济学家威廉#8226;鲍莫尔(William Baumol)30年前所说,画作的价格“或多或少无目的地上下波动……那些把这些艺术品视为‘投资’的人们的行为,会进一步加剧这种波动”。那些寻找金钱意义上内在价值的人,必须把眼光转向别处。Although we do not know who bought the Picasso, beyond the fact that he or she can afford to drop 9m on a work that would be difficult to shift for the same price in a market panic, we can speculate on the motive. The true value lies in owning a painting that the Tate or Getty museums would love to display in public, and being able to dazzle yourself and others in private.尽管我们不知道谁买走了上述毕加索作品,除了他或她有强大的财力,能以1.79亿美元买下一幅难以在市场恐慌时以同样价格售出的作品之外,我们还可以推测其动机。真正价值在于,拥有一副泰特物馆(Tate Museum)或者盖蒂物馆(Getty Museum)将愿意公开展出、也能在私下里让自己和其他人叹的画作。The only way to prove that you are the kind of person who is both cultured and wealthy enough to own a major Picasso is to buy one. Auction houses prosper by holding it in front of you briefly, while offering to sell it to your rival. “They suddenly say, ‘I am never going to get this chance again’, and go all the way,” Mr Pylkk#228;nen says of the world’s ultimate art collectors.要明自己是既有文化品位、又富有到买得起毕加索重要作品的那类人,唯一方式就是购买一幅毕加索重要作品。拍卖行的生财之道就是,把作品短暂地向你展示,同时又向其他竞购者提供购买这幅作品的机会。皮尔卡宁谈起世界上那些终极艺术收藏者时说,“他们会突然说,‘我再也得不到这个机会了’,然后就一鼓作气把它买到手了”。Works of art are “a very rational choice for those who derive a high rate of return in the form of aesthetic pleasure,” Mr Baumol concluded. The economist John Picard Stein wrote in 1977: “Any superior performance derivable from paintings can be attributed entirely to the viewing pleasure they provide, not capturable by speculators.”艺术品“对那些能够从审美享受方面获得很大回报的人来说,是非常合理的选择,”鲍莫尔总结道。经济学家约翰#8226;皮卡德#8226;斯坦(John Picard Stein)在1977年写道:“画作产生的任何超常表现,都可完全归功于它们提供的观赏乐趣,这是投机者们所理解不了的。”There are social as well as aesthetic rewards. The status value of buying art — being invited to gallery and museum dinners, and regarded as a person of exquisite taste — is alluring. Sixty one per cent of collectors surveyed last year by Deloitte, the accounting firm, admitted to this motivation.除审美方面的回报以外,还有社会地位方面的回报。购买艺术品在提高社会地位方面的价值——被邀请参加画廊和物馆晚宴,被当做具有优雅品味的人士对待——是有吸引力的。去年接受会计师事务所德勤(Deloitte)调查的收藏者中,有61%的人承认这一动机。 /201505/376111

  Forget wearing your heart on your sleeve. It’s your hair that reveals what you’re really like.别费力去想怎么表露感情啦,你的发型造早把你“出卖”啦!Someone with glossy hair like the Duchess of Cambridge is likely wealthy enough to afford a professional blow-dry, while someone with a fringe like Emma Stone in The Amazing Spider-Man series leaves an amicable impression on others. So, what does your choice of hairstyle say about you? Read on to find out.有人的秀发光泽如缎,如剑桥公爵夫人,这类人通常“不差钱”,去得起专业发廊;有人则留着像蜘蛛侠系列里爱玛#8226;斯通一样的刘海,给人亲切可人的印象。那么,你的发型说明你是个怎样的人呢?一起来看看吧!High ponytail高高的马尾:目标明确型If you want to show your goal-oriented side, go for a high ponytail. People with this hairstyle tend to be results-driven and logical, according to Jean Haner, a US expert in face ing who wrote The Wisdom of Your Face.如果想要展示自己目标明确的一面,那么高马尾是个不错的选择。美国面相专家Jean Haner在他的著作The Wisdom of Your Face中写道:扎高马尾的人多为结果导向型,且逻辑性很强。When she first came out as an actress, Li Bingbing’s looks were often described as fragile and feminine, partly because of her long locks. But now, her polished high ponytail has convinced everyone that she is unstoppable and will go to any lengths to achieve her goals.李冰冰刚出道时总是给人软弱、充满女人味的印象,部分原因正是她的一头长发。而现在,她将长发扎成高高的马尾,仿佛要告诉大家没有什么能阻挡她实现自己的目标。Straighten your curly hair笔直的长发:冷静果敢型Wavy hair is attractive to many. But if you have curly hair and all you want to do is straighten it, this usually means your life is too chaotic and you need to calm down.卷发能吸引很多人。但是,如果你总是想拉直自己的一头卷发,那么,十有八九是因为你觉得自己的生活太过混乱,而你想要冷静。US singer Taylor Swift is a perfect example of this kind. Long curly hair used to be her signature look, but recently she has been flat ironing her hair quite often. By making it straight, she’s controlling its intensity and giving herself a sense of calmness, according to Cosmopolitan magazine. She may have decided to enjoy herself for a moment after all the ups and downs in her love life.美国歌手泰勒#8226;斯威夫特正是这种类型的典范。长长的卷发本是她的标志,而她最近却常常将以直发示人。据美国《大都会》杂志报道,泰勒#8226;斯威夫特认为拉直头发能让自己更冷静。也许,在经历了跌宕起伏的爱情之后,现在的她想要享受一个人的平静时光。Curl your straight hair浪漫的卷发:风趣乐天型Want to have more fun in your life? Curly hair may give you away. For those who have straight hair that is always curled, it can mean they’re craving for a more interesting life. The theory is that curly hair is more interesting than straight hair and will lead to more exciting experiences.想让自己的生活更有趣?卷发正说明了你的心声。有人天生直发,却总喜欢把它们烫卷,这正意味着她们想要追寻更有趣的生活。有理论认为,卷发比直发更有趣,可以给人带来更多刺激体验。If you don’t believe it, take US singer Beyonce Knowles’ case as an example. Her curly hairdo presents a more positive and fun image to the world.如果你不相信,那么看看美国歌手碧昂斯吧,她的卷发形象给人更积极、有趣的印象。Short wash-and-go简约的短发:自信叛逆型If you have a super short wash-and-go hairstyle, you must be super confident and don’t fuss over things in life.如果你有一头“随洗随干”的超短发,那么,生活中的你一定自信、爽快。Miley Cyrus is one of those types. Long gone are the days when she was the lovely Disney star who had long wavy strands. Now she has a super short wash-and-go hairdo that is as rebellious as her personality. As she told E! Online, by keeping her hair short, she is speaking on behalf of girls everywhere, breaking the stereotype of more traditional hairstyles.麦莉#8226;赛勒斯正是这样的类型。告别了昔日的一头长卷发,她早已不再是那个可爱的迪士尼明星。现在的她留着一头超短发,彰显她桀骜不驯的个性。她在接受E! Online采访时表示,她剪短发,要代表世界各地的女孩儿们(呼吁大家)打破传统发型的禁锢。 /201412/349152

  

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